All posts by perfect-admin

How to make a conclusion?

In the previous sections we have reviewed how an essay is structured, how to choose topics for it, delimiting them, how an introduction is made and how we can do the development or the argumentation of the essay. Now it’s time for us to learn how to make a conclusion.

How to make a conclusion?

The conclusion, in itself, consists of two parts: the recapitulation of the hypothesis and ideas developed during the body of the essay, the arguments (whether in favor or against); and the final idea, reflection or point of view, that proposes to the reader an interpretation of the results obtained throughout the essay.

Something that we must take into account, and that is essential when learning how to make a conclusion, is to return to the hypothesis and the main question that led us to formulate it, but without repeating them, which we will understand how to do right away, when talking about the recapitulation of ideas, and that will work to not seem repetitive or annoy the reader.

It is important that, when recapitulating the main ideas of the essay, we seek not to repeat them in an identical way, or with the same extension with which we expounded them. Let us take advantage of the fact that, in the mind of the reader, these ideas continue to have an almost immediate temporal validity, to only propitiate their resurgence with a few words. For example, if we mention that socks were created in a remote period, just after gloves, and were used only in winter, since footwear was born centuries before and were not deemed necessary yet, we can refer simply to “the time when socks appeared “, without mentioning dates or assumptions about their origin. You have to find the best way to recapitulate, with the least number of words we can (but clearly), the whole body of the essay because, if an argument is out or was not related to the conclusive idea, they will remain, as they say, ” loose ends “and the essay will lose credibility. We must take into account that the arguments are added as the trial progresses and if, for example, argument number three we use is the result of the first two arguments, we can only recapitulate the latter. However, we must be careful that this argument, which synthesizes two others, reflects or contains implicit.

Another important point that we must take into account is that we should not introduce new arguments in the conclusion.

What we must introduce in it is a reflection, a final comment, our point of view, regarding the results of our essay. In this sense, being a free essay, we will seek that our essay, to have a greater influence on readers, concludes with an aspect that is close to the universal, and not to the particular. If, for example, we talk about sadness and crocodile tears, we will try to conclude with affirmations not in the first person, but include the reader as well: “And if with the tears of crocodile our heart is not cleaned of poison, it is good to cry of sadness, as also it is to cry of happiness “. And not: “And if with the tears of crocodile my heart is not cleansed of poison, it is good that I cry of sadness, as I also cry of happiness”.

(The development of the three previous paragraphs arose from the points indicated in the following text: Writing Skills for Accounting Students.)

Recall, now that we learned how to make a conclusion and we already have the bases of how to do a test well, in its entirety, that the most important thing is the reader, and if this is not taken into account when doing our work, It is possible that we are not taken into account to be read attentively.

How to Make a Scientific Essay?

The scientific essay is the final part of a scientific investigation, that is, there is no one without the other. If you do not investigate, you can not write a scientific essay, that you have to be very clear about that.

When you write an essay, it is important that all the time you are clear about its purpose in your mind. You must always keep in your mind the central theme, its details, the hypothesis or assumption of your essay and what are the data or arguments by which you guarantee the validity of this hypothesis.

If you forget your assumption, you run the risk of writing arguments or statements contrary to it, which could be very counterproductive.

When you write a scientific essay, you should know that it is very different from when you write an essay for your philosophy or literature classes, whereas what you seek to raise and sustain is not a personal opinion, but to verify an affirmation that arises from the investigation by means of arguments. empirical also arising from research or experimentation.

The four golden rules

Every scientific essay starts from an investigation, all research arises from a question, every question seeks an answer and every scientific answer requires empirical data to validate it, therefore, follow these four rules and you will be on the right track:

  • Identify your topic and the specific research question about it.
  • Plan your answer, which becomes your assumption or hypothesis
  • Research or experiment to verify the veracity or validity of your hypothesis.
  • Transform the results of your research into arguments and write your scientific essay.

The first step: plan your scientific essay

Any text, for it to be right, must be planned before starting, for it is worthwhile that on a sheet of paper or on a Word page you identify in writing the parts of your essay and what goes on in each part. Introduction, development and conclusion.

The planning phase, which follows from research and precedes writing, is the strategic phase in which it is decided how to order the information that has been obtained in a way that is clear, consistent and ensures that the hypothesis is correctly validated. The arguments.

The structure of the scientific test

As we discussed above, the essay has three essential parts:


Here the subject or object of study is raised, the question from which the research is derived (this question seeks an innovative answer, therefore it is a question never raised before that seeks a response never before sought) and the hypothesis or assumption, which it is an interim answer to the question and it will be validated or complemented with the investigation.


Arguments are presented that validate the hypothesis, are developed and analyzed.

In this part, the presentation of the data derived from the investigation and that serve to answer the initial question, are discussed and ordered in a way that allows answering the best way to that question and, in addition, so that they complement in the most The assumption or initial hypothesis is clear.

Then, all the arguments (data, figures, results) are ordered in order to validate the hypothesis.


As a synthesis, the way in which the assumption is validated through the empirical data presented as arguments is highlighted.

There are certain basic instructions that can help you write your scientific essay correctly:

The title of your scientific essay should be a gateway that helps to clearly identify the subject and the main conclusions of the essay, for example: The consumption of social networks during the baccalaureate classes. The struggle between learning time and fun time.

The essay is written in continuous prose and not as a list of ideas or notes (this only applies to the previous planning phase).

It is important that you accompany it with diagrams, tables or graphs if they help to present in a synthetic and clear way figures or data that validate your hypothesis.

How scientific trials are valued

An extraordinary essay

The parts of the essay are clearly defined, but they are perfectly integrated.

It reflects in detail the domain and understanding of the subject of study it deals with.

It has no spelling or typing errors.

The order of each part and the relationship between the parties is perfectly achieved and the clarity is exceptional.

It contains enough empirical information to validate the hypothesis, which is clearly established.

The conclusion allows to clearly observe the relevance of the arguments and the validity of the hypothesis. It is a kind of brief recapitulation in which the reader is reminded of the subject and the assumption and how these have been appropriately validated with the argument.

A good trial

It reflects that there is sufficient domain on the subject and that the most relevant is identified in this respect, with weaknesses in the knowledge of specialized aspects.

He does not have basic spelling or spelling errors.

It has a clear order in relation to the organization of the parts of the essay.

It has clear arguments.

A regular trial

It shows limited knowledge on the subject, although the most basic is identified.

It offers arguments based on other people’s research and hardly any data obtained by the author appears in a very basic investigation.

It has basic writing and spelling errors (accentuation or misuse of the rules of use of letters that represent common sounds such as B and V or S, C and Z).

A bad trial

It does not have a clear theme and the assumption is too broad or confusing.

The arguments do not allow to validate the assumption or hypothesis.

Most of the information is taken from outside sources.

It is riddled with spelling errors.

How it differs from other trials

The scientific test is different from other types of tests. Scientific trials of marketing, biology, physics, sociology or anthropology base their claims on specific theories of reference.

The scientific essays of other disciplines base their affirmations on the methodologically guided observation of reality or on the empirical experimentation proper to each science.

It essentially results from approximations to the reality of a qualitative, quantitative or mixed type. It shows statistics and hard data and its arguments are strictly factual.

Another type of essay does not require hard data or statements that result from experimentation or methodological observation of reality, but can be obtained from personal meditations or speculations. That moves them away from scientificity.

In short, do not forget that for there to be scientific testing, there must be research behind.

How to Make a Critical essay?

The essay is an argumentative text. In it, it seeks to establish an opinion or personal idea about a topic and offer data or statements that confirm the validity of that idea or opinion.

So, when you write an essay, be it of any nature (academic, scientific, philosophical, literary or critical), what you seek is to offer your own perspective on something of reality and argue about it to convince your readers of the validity of what you say.

Well, one of the types of essay that exist is the critical essay:

Argumentative text in which a favorable or unfavorable opinion is presented about something after analyzing it.

This means that the critical essay is a type of essay in which one thinks in favor or against an object or idea, having as main arguments the characteristics or parts of that object (painting, book, product, musical piece, object of design etc.) or that idea (may be political, economic, philosophical, literary or scientific idea).

For example, if you want to make a critical essay about Pablo Picasso’s Guernica, which is in the Reina Sofia Museum in Madrid, the main source of the arguments will be the painting itself.

In order to perform a critical test it is necessary to follow certain previous steps.

5 steps to follow before writing your critical essay

A good critical essay is the result of a mind with analytical capacity and discipline for the reflection and ordering of ideas; all this, added to the verbal skill to present them convincingly.

Any text, of any kind, requires previous work, that is, written texts are the result of processes of reflection, research, analysis and, of course, planning prior to writing.

The steps to follow before writing your critical essay are the following:

Let’s start with the obvious. Identify or choose the book, the artistic work, product or idea on which your critical essay will treat.

Do a complete reading, a detailed observation or a careful analysis of the object of your criticism. In order to criticize something, you must know it well.

Identify the elements on which you will concentrate your criticism and which you will develop in your essay. To do this, make notes about it, ordered according to criteria established by yourself as important with respect to the work or idea.

Find opinions made by professionals regarding your object of criticism. If your opinion is the same as someone else’s, you can mention it and state your reasons, if it is different, you can also mention it and argue why.

Make a writing plan in which signs the order in which the arguments and ideas will appear, according to the general writing model of a critical essay that I present below.

The critical trial parts

For centuries, many centuries, the basic structure of a text remains practically the same. Aristotle in his Poetics would establish it to remain fixed until now. The critical test is not, then, the exception.


In this part you must present the topic on which you are going to present your critical opinion.

It is important that it is clear what work, what text or what idea is your object of criticism and, in addition, that you state very clearly your opinion or position on it.

On the other hand, an interesting recommendation is that you start the text with an open and controversial question that will stand up to the presentation of your topic and opinion, so that with it you can open the discussion with your possible readers at the same time.

In this example, both the topic and the critical opinion are clearly established by way of question and answer. It is not the only way, but it is an option that can be followed with good results.

On the other hand, if your critical essay will be extensive, it is recommended that at the end of your introduction you signal the later sections of your essay and that of what, roughly, they will have to deal with.


This is the most important part of the critical test, therefore, it must occupy most of it.

In this part you must present the arguments (ideas, data, statements) that serve to verify the validity of your critical opinion on the topic or work that you have decided to talk about.

If the essay is short, it is enough that you present the arguments ordered in paragraphs, in which you present the arguments; but if it is extensive, it is advisable that you organize it by sections in which you present the arguments by blocks according to their type, origin or purpose.


This is the last part of your critical essay and, as in any essay, it is time to make a recapitulation or synthesis in which you make sure to show your readers how your arguments have allowed you to verify that your critical opinion is positive or negative, is valid with respect to the subject of the one that treats the test.

Above all, if your essay was extensive, it may happen that the reader loses the thread of the relationship between your various arguments, examples or reflections and your hypothesis or opinion, therefore, it is important that your conclusion integrates them effectively.

Formal characteristics

It is a text of a subjective nature, which does not mean that it is arbitrary or badly argued. Therefore, you must have an adequate amount of perfectly ordered and related arguments.

It must be written in the first person, due to its subjective text nature.

As in any text made with honesty, the quotes are written in quotation marks, to indicate that they are the authorship of another person. If they are not textual quotes, but paraphrasing, (the idea is taken from someone else) you must indicate from whom and from where you take it, according to the criteria established by some citation model such as APA or MLA.

It is recommended that you begin the paragraphs with a phrase or thematic sentence. This means that the first affirmation of the paragraph serves as a synthesis of everything that will be said in it; all in order to allow a clearer reading of your essay, because this way your reader will be able to identify and follow your ideas more easily.

The title and subtitles must have a characteristic typographical mark that differentiates them from the rest of the text and that you must decide or adapt to the style requirements of the journal where you are going to publish it or the teacher who requests it: it can be in bold, small caps or centered.